2018 Vol. 42, No. 6
Differentiated thyroid carcinoma(DTC), which can be divided into papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma, is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system. Ultrasound of DTC features important clinical value. The treatment of DTC includes surgery, thyroid stimulating hormone-suppression, and 131I radiotherapy in vivo. DTC presents the highest incidence of thyroid cancer, and the value has increased annually in recent years. At the same time, new research have constantly put forward new viewpoints in diagnosis and treatment of DTC. The diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma were investigated and reviewed in this article.
Childhood and adolescent lymphomas account for 10%-15% of all pediatric cancers. Most cases of pediatric lymphoma involve highly aggressive tumors and extranodal sites. As such, accurate staging and early assessment of therapeutic response are of great value for lymphoma in children and adolescents. Conventional imaging modalities (e.g., ultrasound, CT, MRI, and 67Ga) present some limitations in their diagnosis and treatment. 18F-FDG PET/CT is a new imaging technique that combines the functional data of PET with the morphological information of CT. This article reviews the current role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the staging, efficacy evaluation, and follow-up of childhood and adolescent lymphoma and finds that 18F-FDG PET/CT is more sensitive than other imaging techniques in monitoring lymph nodes and the spleen. By imaging more lesions, the accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for staging is better than that achieved by traditional imaging methods. At the same time, because of its metabolic changes earlier than the anatomical changes, assessing treatment efficacy promptly and accurately, as well as determining the nature of residual lesions, may be possible. Because of its lower recurrence rate, the trade-offs between monitoring recurrence and radiation exposure during the follow-up period must be weighed.
Gastric cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive tract worldwide.18F-FDG PET/CT is a novel imaging technique that combines the functional data of PET with the morphological information of CT. It is widely used in the diagnosis and staging of patients with gastric cancer. It is also used to evaluate the recurrence rates, chemotherapy response, and prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. To understand new trends in the clinical application of 18F-FDG PET/CT in gastric cancer, this article provides a review of the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the staging and evaluation of the recurrence and prognosis of gastric cancer.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal tumors and has high malignancy and low survival. Generally, the glucose metabolism in malignant tumors is significantly different from normal tissues, which show high uptake. However, it varies greatly in HCC. Low glucose metabolism is often observed in well- and moderately differentiated HCC. Furthermore, glycolysis has been widely confirmed to be a nonspecific biological phenomenon in malignant tumors, including HCC, by positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography using 18-fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose (a glucose analogue). However, to determine the value of PET and develop new effective drugs and molecular probes, we need to comprehensively understand how hepatocellular cancer cells use glucose to supply energy. In this article, we reviewed and summarized the glycometabolism characteristics of HCC and their application in PET.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main type of senile dementia and accounts for about 60% to 80% of dementia cases. With the prolongation of the average life expectancy of our country's population and the increase of the elderly population, the continuous increase of the incidence rate of AD brings a huge economic burden to the society and the family, which has attracted the attention of scholars at home and abroad. PET is an advanced clinical imaging examination technique that can provide a higher sensitivity and accuracy for the diagnosis of AD. In this paper, the application progress of PET imaging in Alzheimer's disease was reviewed.
At present, there are many methods for detecting apoptosis in vitro, but these methods just are traumatic in material extraction and tissue biopsy by sacrificing of animals in vitro, which limits their clinical application and transformation. In vivo detection methods have become the focus of current research because of non-invasive and real-time monitoring of apoptosis in vivo. Radionuclide apoptotic cell imaging technology among has good research prospects in non-invasive, early stage, dynamic, sensitive, quantitative, and detection intravital. It is the most widely studied and mature technology for detecting apoptosis intravital. Radionuclide apoptosis imaging has been widely used in the detection of apoptosis in cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system diseases, organ transplant rejection, and the evaluation of efficacy and prognosis of malignant tumor after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This article reviews the progress of radionuclide imaging probes in apoptosis.
The author reported a patient who was hospitalized because of headache, tinnitus, and weakness in both lower limbs. This article analyzes the characteristics of the patient from clinical symptoms, related laboratory tests, and ultrasound, MRI, PET/CT. At the same time, this paper also reviews the common imaging diagnostic methods for endometrial tuberculosis through literature. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that nuclear medicine physicians can not easily diagnose malignant lesions even if they have similar indirect signs of malignant lesions, and avoid preconceived thinking, thus reducing the rate of misdiagnosis.
The author reported one case of mediastinal angiolipoma of 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT/CT imaging, The characteristics of the disease were introduced according to clinical symptoms, CT, 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT/CT tumor positive imaging and pathological diagnosis, meanwhile, the understanding of mediastinal angiolipoma was deepened by reviewing the literature. The result of imaging findings of 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT/CT showed no significant ingestion. Conclusion suggests that preoperative multiple imaging examinations are helpful to observe the growth pattern and internal components of mediastinal angiolipoma and is helpful for diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
Many kinds of primary malignant bone tumors exist. In view of the complexity and diversity of imaging manifestations of different diseases, two kinds of diseases that are relatively common and usually misdiagnosed were selected:osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. The diagnostic characteristics from the clinical features and 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging features were analyzed, which may provide guidance in clinical practice.