2019 Vol. 43, No. 1
Autophagy is a vital catabolic process in which cells maintain their homeostasis by digesting and circulating their own cytoplasmic contents. Autophagy could promote and inhibit the development of cancer through various signal pathways. Autophagy has been explored from different aspects. However, few summaries systematically illuminate the relationship between autophagy and radiotherapy. Thus, this review aims to elucidate the effects of autophagy modulations on radio sensitivity and radiotherapy efficacy in various types of cancer. The future development of autophagy modifications for improving radiotherapy efficacy and prognosis of cancer will also be discussed.
Malignant melanoma is prone to metastasis and recurrence. It has become one of the seriously health-threatening malignant tumors. Early diagnosis and accurate staging are very important for prognosis and long-term survival. 18F-FDG PET/CT is a novel imaging technique that combines the functional data of PET with the morphological information of CT. It has been widely used in the diagnosis and staging, local recurrence, and therapeutic response evaluation of malignant tumour including melanonma. With the successful clinical application of integrated-PET/MR imaging system, It has taken a great step forward in multi-modal imaging technology field, thereby realizing synchronous data acquisition. To understand new progress of multimodal imaging technology in malignant melanoma, this article provides a review of the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT and PET/MR in the staging, local recurrence, chemotherapy response evaluation of melanoma.
Pheochromocytoma(PCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor(NET), and accurate diagnosis is the key to treatment. At present, including radioactive iodine markers of iodine benzyl(MIBG) guanidine scanning, positron emission tomography(PET), radioactive nuclide labeled somatostatin analogue nuclear medicine functions such as scanning imaging in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma have higher value. At the same time, the radionuclide therapy mediated by iodide and peptide receptor also has certain value in the palliative treatment of pheochromocytoma. The application of radionuclides in the diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma was reviewed in order to provide help for the development of individualized treatment.
A case of severe bone marrow inhibition in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) by radionuclide 131I was reported. The characteristics of the case were analyzed based on clinical diagnosis, changes in bone marrow hematopoietic system, and whether the patient's treatment process was standardized. The therapeutic effect of radionuclide 131I in the diagnosis and treatment of DTC bone metastasis and the effect of bone marrow hematopoiesis were reviewed. Radionuclide 131I had considerable clinical effect on the diagnosis and treatment of DTC bone metastasis. However, with the increase of cumulative dose and the difference of sensitivity of patients to 131I treatment, white blood cells or platelets in the bone marrow hematopoietic system may decrease. For the treatment of 131I patients with extensive bone metastasis, the occurrence of bone marrow inhibition should be on highly alert and the cumulative treatment dose should be considered. The interval between retreatment should be maximized. When bone marrow inhibition occurs in patients with extensive bone metastasis, 131I treatment should be used selectively.
A case report where a Takayasu’s arteritis involving pulmonary artery was detected on pulmonary ventilation/perfusion imaging was presented. The characteristics of this case on the basis of clinical symptoms, signs, laboratory examinations and imaging examinations were analyzed. On the pulmonary ventilation/perfusion images, the "mismatches" were observed in the whole right lung, and the upper, posterior lobes, and basal segment of the left lung. Only from the results of pulmonary ventilation/perfusion examination, it is easy to be misdiagnosed as pulmonary embolism. While it is considered as a result of the pulmonary artery involvement in the Takayasu's arteritis, once the patient’s history and other examination results were analyzed, as well as the peer review of related literatures. In this case report, SPECT proved a non-invasive diagnostic tool for Takayasu's arteritis patient involved pulmonary artery. It offered precise diagnosis and thereby appropriate treatment strategies are taken on those patients.
A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is a single, well-circumscribed nodule with diameter less than 3 cm. The clinical manifestations and imaging features of SPN are usually atypical because of the small size and it is often found during physical examination. There are many kinds of benign SPN, including tuberculosis, hamartoma, sclerosing hemangioma, pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastoma tumor and so on. Tuberculosis and pulmonary inflammatory myofiblastic tumor, which are easily misdiagnosed because of high uptake in PET/CT imaging, were selected. The clinical features and imaging manifestations of the two lesions were analyzed and reviewed in order to get inspiration and improve the diagnostic accuracy of benign SPN in future work.