Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, which is clinically characterized by progressive cognitive deficit and memory impairment. It seriously affects mental health, physical activity, and quality of life of patients in the late stage. However, early diagnosis of AD remains one of the greatest challenges worldwide. Extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques composed of Aβ and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles consisting of hyperphosphorylated Tau proteins are considered as the key pathological hallmarks of AD. Detection of Aβ and Tau protein is considered critical for the early diagnosis of AD. In recent decades, nanotechnology has developed rapidly, and nanotechnology-based Aβ- or Tau-targeted detection has provided the possibility for the early diagnosis of AD. The present review focuses on the research of nanotechnology in the diagnosis of AD.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, but its underlying pathogenesis remains ambiguous. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AD. As an advanced imaging technique for clinical applications, PET molecular imaging permits the non-invasive visualization of in vivo neuroinflammatory processes in AD. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of neuroinflammation in AD and summarizes recent progress in PET molecular imaging of neuroinflammation.
The hippocampus is an important brain region related to learning and memory. MRI, PET and other imaging methods can provide structural, functional and glucose metabolism indicators of the hippocampus, and provide more imaging support for early screening and diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This paper mainly reviews the imaging research progress of hippocampal volume, hippocampal functional connectivity and hippocampal glucose metabolism in patients with amnestic MCI, with a view to finding more sensitive imaging indicators for the diagnosis of MCI.
Depression is a common mood disorder, which seriously affects the quality of life of patients. Accurate diagnosis and timely treatment are important. However, the pathogenesis of depression is incomplete clear, and there is also a lack of specific examination methods are lacking. Conventional examinations face various technical bottlenecks in the diagnosis and treatment effect of depression. However, molecular imaging research provides new research ideas and methods for depression. The author reviews the research progress of PET/CT in term of neuronal mechanism, diagnosis and detection of depression.
Obesity prevalence increases worldwide, and the risk of various correlated diseases consistently grows. Although alterations in brain structure and regional activation pattern of obese individuals were widely explored in MRI and functional MRI studies, they remain incompletely understood at the molecular level. Receptor imaging with PET has been applied in obesity studies given its in vivo access to reveal brain receptor functional alterations. This article provides an overview on the role of PET brain receptor imaging in obesity.
In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma, has increased significantly. About 90% of skin cancers are associated with ultraviolet radiation damage. Upon exposure of the skin to ultraviolet rays, especially UVB (290–320 nm) and UVA (320–400 nm), epidermal melanocytes migrate to adjacent keratinocytes by synthesizing melanin, thus providing light protection for the skin. A series of damage reactions, including tanning and inflammation, cell DNA damage, and photocarcinogenesis, occurred after the skin was stimulated by excessive ultraviolet radiation. Recent studies have found that visible light (400–700 nm) and ozone can also cause skin damage. The skin damage caused by environmental exposure is mainly attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species, which cause oxidative damage to protein, lipid, and nucleic acid, followed by a series of complex reactions within the skin. Damaged skin cells cause inflammatory reactions, resulting in ultimate damage to the skin. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of photoinduced skin damage and developing correct radiation protection measures are important for the treatment and prevention of related diseases. This review summarizes the effects of sunlight, including ultraviolet, visible, and ozone on skin damage, as well as the research on gene loci of suntan caused by sunlight, to explore new ways to prevent and treat skin damage caused by solar radiation.
The incidence of thyroid cancer is increases year by year. Traditional treatment for radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer is limited.Targeted therapy is a popular new treatment method in recent years, and has achieved positive results in the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. This article reviews the accurate targeting therapy strategy of radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma, drug targeting therapy, peptide receptor radionuclide targeting therapy, local precise therapy and immunotherapy.
Lung cancer is one of the most common types of malignancy. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of lung cancer cases. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapy can significantly improve the prognosis of patients with advanced NSCLC. In this case, determining EGFR mutation status is critical in selecting an optimal treatment regimen for these patients. However, the acquisition of good-quality tumor tissues for genetic alteration analysis remains a challenge for patients who cannot bear surgery and biopsy. Therefore, noninvasive in vivo diagnosis of EGFR mutation status in NSCLC patients is critical for patient management. Positron emission tomography (PET) with specific probe targeted to EGFR has the potential to fulfill this requirement. This study provides a brief review of the value of PET with multiple tracers in predicting the status of EGFR mutation.
A case of malignant inflammatory myofibroblastoma was reported. The characteristics of the disease were analyzed using clinical symptoms, CT, 18F-FDG PET/CT examination, clinical diagnosis, pathological diagnosis, and prognosis. The understanding of this disease was deepened through literature review. The case was verified as malignant inflammatory myofibroblastoma. The disease progresses quickly and had low specificity. Diagnosis needed pathology and prognosis. Myofibroblastoma is mostly benign, and the incidence of malignant diseases is small. Once myofibroblastoma occurs, it is easy to misdiagnose. Thus, a combination of clinical, imaging, pathological, therapeutic, and prognostic considerations is needed.
A case of bone metastase secondary to intracranial anaplastic hemangiopericytoma (AHPC) was reported. The characteristics of the disease were analyzed on the basis of clinical symptoms and imaging examinations, especially bone imaging examination and pathology. The understanding of intracranial AHPC bone metastasis was deepened by literature review. Bone metastases are common in most malignant tumors, but intracranial AHPC, which is a rare central nervous system tumor, has an extremely low bone metastasis potential. In the present case, the multiple lesions of bone metastasis from intracranial AHPC were detected through a whole body bone imaging examination. Thus, whole body bone scans should be regarded as important examination tools for patients with malignant tumors during follow-up, especially patients with rare bone metastasis, because the scans have a key value in early detection, clinical staging, and treatment decision.
A patient hospitalized with palpitation, chest tightness, and shortness of breath was reported in this study. She was definitively diagnosed with Graves' hyperthyroidism and had several risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD), including old age, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Resting and ATP stressing myocardial perfusion imaging were applied in 2 days to determine whether CHD exists in this patient. Results confirmed that the patient has extensive myocardial ischemia and a high risk of cardiac adverse events. Thus, coronary angiography was suggested. Revascularization was achieved after percutaneouscoronary intervention, and no hyperthyroidism crisis occurred. MPI is recommended for patients with hyperthyroidism and suspected CHD after excluding correlative contraindications to facilitate the risk stratification of CHD and guide further treatment strategies.